Security Technology Executive

NOV-DEC 2017

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www. • November/December 2017 • SECURIT Y TECHNOLOGY E XECUTIVE 25 there are many other mitigating reasons related to this type of theft, such as • the potential loss of life of repair people, • loss of power to customers and • the risk introduced to facilities and operations that provide critical ser- vices, such as hospitals, transporta- tion, and financial institutions. Unfortunately, the grid was never designed to withstand these types of attacks. However, today's reality is that actions must be taken to correct these deficiencies. When we look at the distribution architecture, points of vulnerability exist within each segment of the distribution chain. Typically, when we think about vulnerabilities, we look to the 57,000- plus substations and power generat- ing facilities, but there are many other targets including transmission poles, switchyards, maintenance sites and even control centers. The key is identi- fying the areas with the greatest risk and putting plans in place to remove those vulnerabilities. Regulations to help mitigate risk In the United States, that's the main objective of the NERC physical security standard. If terrorism, theft and property damage weren't enough to incentivize actions, then there is the mandate for compliance with CIP014. The current standard is in place and will likely grow over time. It is, therefore, best to deter- mine not only how to meet the standard, but also understand how to address vul- nerabilities throughout the infrastruc- ture and ensure a growth path to address these items over time. The NERC guidelines are just that: guidelines of what should be addressed. There is still the question of how to actually meet the guidelines, taking into account effectiveness, operations and budget. There are several approaches to protect critical assets and meet NERC guidelines, and you should consider them in terms of their effectiveness and cost. After all, the end game here is pro- tecting the power grid and ensuring that the lights will turn on when we all get home this evening. However, let's focus specifically on intelligent video surveil- lance, and how to use it to address the five areas of concern outlined in NERC CIP014: 1. Detection of Attacks 2. Response to Attacks 3. Communication 4. Deterrence and Delay 5. Assessment of Attacks NERC #1 – Detection of Attacks The key to robust detection is making the perimeter smart. One means to achieve this is through the use of video analytics. Video analytics has several advantages • It is reliable and affordable • It can use existing equipment includ- ing cameras, lighting and recording devices • It helps achieve both detection and "verification." (Whereas other sensors may detect well, but may still require some type of visual confirmation) • It is intelligent and continues to become more intelligent. Today's technology also provides an additional level of intelligence when uti- lizing video analytics, mainly the ability to add geospatial capability. "Geospatial" means each video pixel has associated location data – latitude, longitude and elevation. This location data can be extremely beneficial for detection, situa- tional awareness and reaction to an event. The addition of "location information" to video isn't that well known, but it has actually been around for quite some time and has consequently become extremely effective in the detection of attacks. The alignment of pixels and physical location data also referred to as geo-referencing or geo-intelligence, provides information as to "where" each pixel resides in the terrain or map space. The result allows the software to understand an object's real size, regardless of how many pix- els it claims in the image. The result is a set of detection capabilities that are aligned with the types of vulnerabilities that occur along the power distribution architecture and other critical facilities. These include: • Software-Based Video Stabilization • Detection by Various Camera Types (Thermal, Visible, Wide Angle, Mobile, Fixed, PTZ) • Object Left Behind Detection • Target Classification – Human, Car, Truck, Boat • Loitering • Tailgating • Camera Auto Follow Another benefit of video analytics is that it is retrofittable into your current surveillance system. This type of intelli- gence can be added to an existing surveil- lance system through the use of a small edge device which can typically handle all the cameras at a substation. For a big- ger facility, an add-on server can be used to accommodate dozens of cameras. In SUBSTATIONS OPERATION CENTERS

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